HIRAKUD, A DAM WHICH IS THE LARGEST IN INDIA AND WITH TWICE A SIZE OF COUNTRY
Hirakud Dam was built across the Mahanadi River, which about 15 kilometres from the Sambalpur in the state of the Odisha in India. It is known to be the largest dam in India. Behind the Hirakud Dam there is a extended lake, Hirakud Reservoir, 55 km long. Hirakud Dam is the one of first major infrastructure with multipurpose river valley projects which was started after the India's independence.
Hirakud Dam was started to began its construction in late 1947 and finished as well as opened in 1957. The cost of Hirakud Dam construction was around 1.01 billion Indian rupees in the year of 1953. Hirakud Dam is an composite Dam as well as it acts an great reservoir to that place.
In the year, 15 March 1946, Sir Hawthorne Lewis, the Governor of Odisha back in the British rule, laid off the great foundation on Stone of the Hirakud Dam. A project report of the Hirakud Dam was submitted to the new government of the independent India on June 1947. The late former Prime Minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru delivered the first batch of concrete cement to the construction of the Hirakud Dam on 12 April 1948.
The committee made an envisaged costs of ₹ 92.80 crore for the project and that the construction of the Hirakud Dam would be the complete by June 1955. It also said that by 1954–55 a total of 13,47,000 acres (5,45,000 ha) would be irrigated and that 48,000 kW of electric power would be generated. Therefore, the Hirakud Dam was completed in 1953 and was formally inaugurated by Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru on 13 January 1957. The total cost of the project was ₹1,000.2 million (equivalent to ₹85 billion or US$1.1 billion in 2020) in 1957. Power generation along with agricultural irrigation started in 1956, achieving full potential in 1966.
Hirakud Dam details about the impoundment, Hirakud Dam is built on with the Mahanadi River. The length of the main section of Hirakud Dam is 4.8 km and the entire Hirakud Dam is about 25.8 km and its Height about 60.96 m (200ft). The Hirakud Dam has very great spillway path to the Mahanadi River. Its consists of 64 sluice-gates and as well as 34 crest-gates to the spillways of Hirakud Dam. The capacity of the Hirakud Dam spillway speed consists of 42,450 cubic metres per second (14,99,000 cu ft/s) which is the longest spillway in the india.
Water coming from the Hirakud Dam is at later stage was allocated to the various industries and manufacture, primarily for the mineral and mine processing as well as the coal which fired thermal power plants in the Jharsuguda and the districts of Sambalpur.
THE TECHNICAL AND STRUCTURE DETAILS OF THE HIRAKUD DAM ARE AS FOLLOWS :-
TOTAL LENGTH 25.79 km(16.03mi)
LENGTH OF MAIN DAM 4.8 km(3.0 mi)
ARTIFICIAL LAKE 743 km2(287 sq mi)
IRRIGATED AREA 2,355
(BOTH CROP) km2(235,477 ha)
AREA LOST IN
CONSTRUCTION OF 596 km2
INSTALLED CAPACITY (POWER GENERATION) 347.5 MW
COST (IN 1957) ₹1,000.2 MILLION
₹85 BILLION OR
US$1.1 BILLION IN 2020)
TOP DAM LEVEL R.L. 195.680 m (642 ft)
F.R.L/ M.W.L R.L. 192.024 m (630 ft)
DEAD STORAGE LEVEL R.L. 179.830 m
TOTAL QUANTITY OF 18,100,000
EARTH WORK IN (640×106 cu ft)
TOTAL QUANTITY OF CONCRETE
10,70,000 m3(38×106 cu ft)
CATCHMENT 83,400 km2(32,200sqmi)
The upper drainage basin of the Mahanadi River,is centered on the place of Chhattisgarh Plain, periodic droughts depicts a situation where the area of the lower delta region sometimes floods and causes damages to the crops of the areas. The Hirakud Dam was constructed for the help of the make all these problems to be sorted out, by which thay created reservoirs and also controlling the flow of the Mahanadi river through the drainage system. The Hirakud dam regulates all flow of the Mahanadi River and through which Hirakud Dam produces a massive amount of hydroelectricity through their several hydroelectric plants.
The Hirakud Dam helps to control all floods in the Mahanadi delta region and also irrigates about 75,000 km2 (19×106 acres) to the land. The Hydroelectricity is also being generated. The Hirakud Dam also regulates about 83,400 km2 (20.6×106 acres) to the Mahanadi's drainage system. The reservoir of the Hirakud Dam has storage capacity about 5.818 km3 (1.396 cu mi) with the gross of 8.136 km3 (1.952 cu mi).
There is a fact about, it drains more than an area of 1,33,090 km2 (32.89×106 acres), which is more than the twice area of the Sri Lanka.
The Hirakud Dam project provides more than 1,556 km2 (3,84,000 acres) to the kharif regions and also of 1,084 km2 (2,68,000 acres) of rabi irrigation in the districts of the Sambalpur, Bargarh, Bolangir, and Subarnpur. The Hirakud Dam water released by the power plant which also helps to irrigates another 4,360 km2 (1.08×106 acres) to CCA in Mahanadi delta.
PEOPLE WHO WERE AFFECTED BY THE DAM CONSTRUCTION OF HIRAKUD DAM
The sole reason of the Hirakud Dam was to check their massive floods that were affecting the large part of the coastal area of Odisha. For reasons, the construction of the Hirakud Dam was greatly affected to the natives of the western part of Odisha. Therefore , about nearly 150,000 people were affected because of the Hirakud Dam project and about 22,000 families were also displaced from the place of project.
As per the authentic estimation, an amount of ₹120 million (equal to the ₹12 billion or in US$150 million in 2020) was provided for the payment of all compensation to the affected people by the Hirakud Dam project. After reviewing all the documentation, an amount was reduced to the ₹95 million (equal to ₹9.2 billion or US$120 million in 2020) and the total compensation was paid to the people was, in that time is, only ₹33.2 million (equal to ₹3.2 billion or US$43 million in 2020). Then large number of families and residents were got evacuated from their hearth and homes without any compensation from 1956 onwards.
HIRAKUD DAM ON STAMPS AND NOTES
A memorial stamp was made on which the Hirakud Dam was released on 29 Oct 1979 from the Department of the Posts, with the denomination 30 paise, 3,000,000 stamps were issued in this memorial. Also hundred rupee note was issued on date of 26 December 1960 by the Governor of the RBI, known to be late padma visbhushan, H.V.R. Iyengar.
The size of that note was about 109 mm × 172 mm (4.3 in × 6.8 in). On the back side of that note, there are the thirteen regional languages along with the an image of the Hirakud Dam and its Hydro-Electric power station plant.
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